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Yeungnam Univ J Med > Volume 8(2); 1991 > Article
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine 1991;8(2):128-137.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.128    Published online December 31, 1991.
Low volume peritoneal dialysis in newborns and infants.
Young Hoon Park, Soo Ho Ahn, Son Moon Shin, Jeong Ok Hah
Abstract
Peritoneal dialysis has been widely considered to be the dialytic treatment of choice for acute renal failure in infants and young children, because the technique is simple, safe and easily adapted for these patients. Also peritoneal dialysis in infants might have more effective ultrafiltration and clearance than in adults. In certain circumstances associated with hemodynamic instability, ordinary volume peritoneal dialysis (30-50 ml/kg body weight per exchange) or hemodialysis may not be suitable unfortunately. But frequent cycled, low volume, high concentration peritoneal dialysis may be more available to manage the acute renal failure of newborns and infants. Seven infants underwent peritoneal dialysis for hemodynamically unstable acute renal failure with low exchange volume (14.2±4.2 ml/kg), short exchange time (30 to 45 minutes) and hypertonic glucose solution (4.25% dextrose). Age was 1.9±1.3 months and body weight was 4.6±1.6 kg. Etiology of acute renal failure was secondary to sepsis with or without shock (5 cases) and postcardiac operation (2 cases). Catheter was inserted percutaneously with pigtail catheter or Tenkhoff catheter by Seldinger method. Dialysate was commercially obtained Peritosol which contained sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, lactate and calcium. Net ultrafiltration (ml/min) showed no difference between low volume dialysis and control (0.27±0.09 versus 0.29±0.09). Blood BUN decreased from 95.7±37.5 to 75.7±25.9 mg/dl and blood pH increased from 7.122±0.048 to 7.326±0.063 after 24 hours of peritoneal dialysis. We experienced hyperglycemia which were controlled by insulin (2 episodes), leakage at the exit site (2), mild hyponatremia (1) and Escherichia coli peritonitis (1). Two children of low volume dialysis died despite the treatment. In our experience, low volume and high concentration peritoneal dialysis with frequent exchange may have sufficient ultrafiltration and clearance without significant complications in the certain risked acute renal failure of infants.
Key Words: Low volume peritoneal dialysis, Newborn and infant


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